How Many Coats of Stain Do You Need? (Explained!)

You need to apply the right number of coats for the stain to come out bright and beautiful. So how many coats of stain do you need?

Generally, you only need 2 coats of stain. This is because stain is known to penetrate the material so you should only use the number of coats that the material can absorb.

Most materials including wood can only absorb two coats of stain. Three coats will be too much and you’ll need to wipe off the excess.

However, you should know that the number of coats required to apply stain depends on the type of stain, type of finish envisioned, and the surface being stained. So why does the number of coats matter for stain? Let’s find out.

Why Does The Number Of Coats Matter For Stain?

Why Does The Number Of Coats Matter For Stain?

The number of coats matter for stain for several reasons. For starters, you need the right number of coats for the finish to come out bright. The wrong number of coats can affect the vibrancy of the finish making the stain appear dull or streaky.

You also need the right number of coats for proper coverage. Stains are designed to penetrate and cover the entire surface that it is used on. The wrong number of coats wouldn’t give you good coverage as parts of the material will still be exposed.

The number of coats matters for the stain to give proper protection. Stains don’t only beautify, the finish is designed to protect the wood or material it is used on from dust, handling, and weight. The wrong number of coats will not give the surface good protection as the finish can easily be smeared.

The number of coats also matters to prevent waste. After applying, you are required to wipe off the excess stain. If you apply the wrong number of coats, you’ll most likely end up wiping off more stain from the surface.

So in a nutshell, the number of coats matters to prevent wastage and to allow the finish to come out smooth and fine.

How Do I Know If I Need A Second Coat Of Stain?

How Do I Know If I Need A Second Coat Of Stain?

You’ll need a second coat of stain when you notice any of these:

When The First Coat Looks Dull

Stain is used to tint or change the entire color of a material. This means that stain has a very deep color shade. So if the first coat of stain looks dull or faded, you’ll need a second coat to improve the vibrancy and color shade.

When You Want To Protect The Material

When you need to protect the stained material, you’ll need at least two coats of stain. This is because one coat isn’t enough to shield the material from dust, handling, or even moisture.

When You Are Sealing

When you are sealing the material with stains like gel, varnish, and lacquer, you’ll need a second coat and possibly a third coat of the stain. This is because one coat of stain isn’t enough to completely seal the material.

To seal a material, you first need to fill the cracks and holes in the material. The first coat of stain will do this. The second and third coats will then seal and cover the surface.

When Applying Stain Outdoors

When you are applying stain over a material to be used or installed outdoors, you’ll need a second coat of stain. This is because when used outdoors, the stain will be exposed to the elements.

The UV rays of the sun, rainfall, dust, and heat can all affect the stain’s finish if you apply just a coat. While applying stain outdoors, it’s better to use multiple coats of a weather-resistant stain rather than a regular stain.

When The First Coat Looks Streaky

Normally, when a stain looks streaky, it means you didn’t apply enough stain. In such cases, you’ll need a second and more coats of stain.

When Staining Over A Previously-Finished Wood

When you are applying stain over a finished wood, you’ll need at least two coats of paint to cover the existing finish on the wood.

When Staining A Patched or Repaired Surface

When staining a patched or repaired material, you’ll need at least two coats of stain. This is because there will be marks and imperfections on the material from when it was repaired. These imperfections need to be sealed and covered and one coat of stain can’t do this.

So what happens if you don’t use enough coats of stain? Let’s find out.

What Happens If I Don’t Use Enough Coats Of Stain?

When you don’t use enough coats of stain, you will get a very poor finish. Also, the finish will come out dull if you use fewer coats of stain. This is because the color of the stain will not come out well with just one coat.

When you don’t use enough coats, you wouldn’t get enough coverage too. You need enough coats for proper coverage since stain is known to penetrate deeply. The first coat will most likely be sucked in the material and if that’s all you applied, the top layer of the material will look bare and unfinished.

You will also end up with a streaky finish. The streaks in the stain will appear because there aren’t enough coats of stain to hide imperfections.

Not enough coats of stain also mean that you don’t get enough protection on the surface. For stain to protect the surface material from damages, there need to be enough coats of stain.

But what happens when you use too many coats of stain? Let’s take a closer look.

What Happens If I Use Too Much Coats Of Stain?

When you use too many coats of stain, the finish will become rough. This is because the stain will become gummed up on the surface giving off a rough appearance. The color will also become blotchy because some parts will be deeper than others while some will be lighter than others. It makes the finish appear uneven.

You’ll also be wasting the stain if you use too much of it. This is because after applying the stain, the excess stain is required to be wiped off. If you use too many coats, you’ll be wiping off a lot more stain and this will lead to wastage.

Also, if you apply too many coats of stain, the stain coating will have a long dry time because the coating will become too thick to dry quickly. For each coat of stain that you apply, you will have to wait at least 30 minutes to 1 hour of extra dry time.

The finish can also remain wet and sticky for hours with too many coats. This is because the stain will not dry quickly.

Different Types of Stains: How Many Coats?

Different Types of Stains: How Many Coats

Let’s check out some common types of stains and how many coats you need for each:

Gel Stain

You only need 2 coats of gel stain. This is because gel stain doesn’t penetrate the wood. Instead, the gel stain stays on the surface. Since there is no penetration, you need fewer coats of gel stain to completely cover and seal the material.

Also, gel is commonly used as a sealant over paints and stains. Being a sealant, you only need two coats of it since there is an undercoat already on the surface.

Semi-Transparent Stain

You only need one coat of semi-transparent stain. This is because the second coat will only stay on the first coat. It won’t penetrate and as such will make the finish blotchy. For a smooth semi-transparent finish, lay one thin coat of stain.

Varnish Stain

You need 2-3 coats of varnish stain for complete coverage and durability. For surfaces that wouldn’t see much use, you can apply just 2 coats of varnish stain. For other surfaces that would be used frequently like tables and chair arms, you’ll need 3 coats of varnish for improved protection.

Wood Stain

You will between 1 and 3 coats of wood stain on wood. Usually, two coats are enough to change the color of the wood grain. But when you are staining very porous wood, you’ll need at least 3 coats of wood stain for proper coverage.

Lacquer Stain

You need at least 3 coats of lacquer for proper coverage and protection. This is because lacquer by design is a very thin finish. So you’ll need more coats of it to seal and protect a surface. You should know that lacquer is not common on vertical surfaces as the finish is thin and can easily drip off the surface.

Different Types of Surfaces: How Many Stain Coats?

Here we listed different types of surfaces you can use stain on, and the number of coats:

How Many Coats Of Stain On Wood?

You need between 2 and 4 coats of stain on wood. On fresh and unfinished wood, you’ll need at least 3 coats of stain. This is because fresh wood is usually porous and sometimes, contains tannins. The first coat of wood stain is often sucked deep into the wood. The second and third coats reveal the finish.

How Many Coats Of Stain On Deck?

On most decks, you’ll only need two light coats of stain. This is because the wooden material used to make decks are usually very hard. The wood is reinforced to be hard to protect the deck from the elements and moisture.

Given the hard nature of the deck, it becomes difficult for the stain to penetrate deeply into the wood grain. So you should only apply as much stain coating as the deck can absorb and this is usually two coats. Some decks will take only one coat of stain.

Hardwood Floor

On hardwood floor, you’ll need at least 3 coats of stain. This is because the floor needs as much protection as it can get.

Also, one or two coats of stain on hardwood flooring will result in a lighter shade of paint. If the stain coating is light, it will be quickly ruined when you walk or move objects over it. It’s better to get a darker tone on floors and you can only get that with 3-4 coats of stain.

Stairs

On stairs, you’ll need 3 coats of stain. It’s also advised to apply an oil-based stain on stairs to get enough protection. This is because stairs are high-traffic areas which means a lot of trampling, running, and foot traffic on the stain. Oil-based stains can cope better with this high traffic than water-based stains.

Pines

You need 2-3 coats of stain on pines. You should know that you’ll need to prime the pines properly before staining them to seal holes in the surface.

Table

On a table, you’ll need 2-3 coats of stain. You can apply 1-2 coats of stain on parts of the table like the legs and underside. This is because these parts wouldn’t see much use or handling.

But on the tabletop, you’ll need at least 3 coats of stain and possibly, a sealant. This is because the tabletop will see a lot of action, spills, and the likes.

Fence

On a fence, you’ll need 2 – 3 coats of an exterior stain. This is because the fence will be exposed to the elements, dust, debris, and rainfall.

All of this can damage the stain very quickly. So you need enough coats for protection. Always ensure to use exterior stain for fences as you’ll need stain that has weather resistance.

Wood Trim

Most manufacturers advise applying two coats of stain on wood trim. You should know that you’ll have to sand the trim as wood trim is usually riddled with dust, debris, and filth. All of these will not allow the stain to penetrate.

Final Words

Overall, the number of coats required to stain a surface depends on the type of surface being stained, the type of stain being used, and the weather conditions.

You should know that after applying a stain on any material, you should wipe off the excess to prevent the stain from turning sticky or tacky.

Leave a Comment