Wood stain is finished with polyurethane to improve the durability of the finish. But the wood stain must have dried before you can apply polyurethane. How long does this take?
You should let the wood stain dry for at least 24 hours before finishing with a polyurethane layer. This is to give the wood stain enough dry time to harden and support the polyurethane top coat.
Water-based and oil-based wood stains dry enough for Polyurethane in 24 hours but gel stains take 48 hours to dry. You should know that the room temperature and the number of coats determine how long it takes for the wood stain to dry enough for Polyurethane.
This post reveals more about applying polyurethane over wood stain including tips to know when the wood stain is dry enough for polyurethane application. Let’s dive in.
- 1 How Long Does Stain Take To Dry?
- 2 How To Know If Stain Is Dry Enough For Polyurethane?
- 3 What Happens If You Apply Polyurethane Before Stain Dries?
- 4 Do You Have To Sand Stain Before Applying Polyurethane?
- 5 Do You Need To Apply An Undercoat Between Stain and Polyurethane?
- 6 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
How Long Does Stain Take To Dry?
On average, wood stain takes 2 hours to dry and can be recoated in 4 hours. For a polyurethane top coat, the stain should be allowed to dry for at least 24 hours before the polyurethane is applied.
However, these are just average figures and are not always accurate because there are different types of wood stains. Each wood stain having a different dry time for a recoat and polyurethane top coat.
To make this guide more accurate, let’s check out the different types of wood stains and check out how long it takes for each type of wood stain to dry enough for polyurethane application.
How Long Does Gel Stain Take To Dry Before Polyurethane?
Water-based gel stain takes 12 hours to dry while oil-based gel stain dries in 24 hours to dry. Before applying polyurethane over a gel stain, the gel stain needs to have dried for about 48 hours. This is to give the gel stain enough time to cure and harden before the polyurethane is applied.
The reason gel stain takes longer to dry than other types of wood stains is because gel stain is thicker and has a jelly-like texture. Since it’s thicker than other types of stains, it will also take longer to dry enough for a polyurethane top coat.
How Long Does Water-Based Stain Take To Dry Before Polyurethane?
Water-based wood stains dry in less than an hour and you can recoat safely in 2 hours. However, before applying polyurethane to a water-based stain, the stain has to dry for at least 12 hours.
In cold temperatures, a water-based stain can take up to 24 hours to dry enough for polyurethane application. Water-based stains have the quickest dry time of all stains because the stain is dissolved in water and water evaporates quickly.
How Long Does Oil-Based Stain Take To Dry Before Polyurethane?
Oil-based stains take 2 hours to dry and can be recoated in 4-6 hours but for a polyurethane top coat, the oil-based stain will take at least 24 hours to dry.
You should know that when the room temperature is below 50 degrees Fahrenheit, an oil-based stain can take up to 48 hours to dry enough for a polyurethane top coat.
This is because oil-based stains are thick and dissolved in natural oils like linseed oil which takes hours to dry up.
How To Know If Stain Is Dry Enough For Polyurethane?
To know if the stain is dry enough for polyurethane, you should inspect the texture of the wood stain coating. When the wood stain is dry, no longer sticky, and can be sanded smooth, then the stain is dry enough and can be sealed with polyurethane. If the wood stain is sticky, wet, and smelly, then it’s not ready for polyurethane application.
Before a wood stain coat can be covered with polyurethane, the wood stain must have become hard, strong, and dry. Wood stains only attain these features when the stain has cured. To know if your wood stain has cured, swipe your fingers across the wood stain coating. If the wood stain feels sticky or wet, then it’s not dry enough for polyurethane application but if it feels dry and smooth, then that’s a good sign.
To be sure the wood stain is dry enough for polyurethane, you should sand it with 400-grit sandpaper. If the sandpaper moves smoothly over the wood stain coat, it means it is hard enough and can be covered with polyurethane. If the wood stain clogs the sandpaper, you should leave it to dry for a few more hours before applying polyurethane.
What Happens If You Apply Polyurethane Before Stain Dries?
If you apply polyurethane over a wood stain coat before the stain is dry, the polyurethane finish will become sticky, messy, and will not dry in time. This is because the leftover solvent in the wood stain will affect the polyurethane coating.
Painters advise DIYers to wait till the wood stain is dry before polyurethane is applied. The purpose of this is to allow all the solvent (water and oils) is the wood stain to dry out. When the solvent dries out, the wood stain will become hard, dry, and smooth. In this state, it can be sealed with polyurethane.
If you apply polyurethane over wood stain without all the solvent drying out, you will trap the leftover solvent underneath the polyurethane. When this happens, the polyurethane coating will not dry. Since there is solvent (water or oils) trapped underneath the polyurethane coating, the polyurethane will remain wet and later turn sticky. If left unchecked, the polyurethane finish will begin to give off an offensive odor.
In addition to that, the polyurethane will turn filthy. Since the polyurethane isn’t drying, dust nibs and debris will settle on the finish making it filthy and dark. Polyurethane is supposed to be clear and transparent so filthy isn’t what you want.
The worst part of all this is that the only way to fix the polyurethane coat is to strip and reapply it. Not only is this stressful and time-consuming, but it’s also a waste of polyurethane paint. So, only apply polyurethane when the wood stain is dry enough and not before.
Related Read: Can You Apply Polyurethane Over Tacky Stain?
Do You Have To Sand Stain Before Applying Polyurethane?
You don’t have to sand wood stain before applying polyurethane. This is because polyurethane paint is designed to bond perfectly to stained wood. However, if you are working on an old wood stain that has accumulated dirt or stains, you should sand with 320-400 grit sandpaper before applying polyurethane. This is to remove the contaminants on the old stain coating so the polyurethane can stick better.
Polyurethane paint is a top coat or sealant meaning that polyurethane is designed to be used on existing finishes like a wood stain. Since it’s a sealant, polyurethane will stick to wood stain without sanding first. However, if you want to improve adhesion between the wood stain and the polyurethane coating, you can sand the wood stain with 400-grit sandpaper. This guarantees a smoother result.
The only case where sanding is compulsory before putting polyurethane over a wood stain is when the wood stain is old. Old wood stain finishes often accumulate dust over time so if you want to put polyurethane over an old finish, sanding is necessary. You should also sand the wood stain if it was sealed. This is because polyurethane will never stick to a sealed wood stain finish if you don’t sand off the sealant first.
You should remember to always dust or vacuum the sanded dust from the wood stain before applying polyurethane. If you don’t remove the sanded dust, the polyurethane finish will be riddled with bumps and pimples.
Do You Need To Apply An Undercoat Between Stain and Polyurethane?
You don’t need an undercoat between wood stain and polyurethane. This is because the existing wood stain on the wood is a good enough basecoat for the polyurethane to adhere to.
You should only apply an undercoat between stain and polyurethane if the existing stain coating is ruined or uneven. In this case, an undercoat is needed to allow the polyurethane to adhere and dry smoothly.
When you want to seal a wood stain with polyurethane, a primer or undercoat is not needed because there is already an undercoat on the wood. The wood stain on the wood is already good enough to allow the polyurethane to dry smoothly. If you add a basecoat or primer coating on the wood stain before applying polyurethane, you will cover the wood stain color and this will make the wood finish look dull after some time.
An undercoat is only needed if the existing stain is damaged. If the wood stain is wet, sticky, dirty, or uneven, you need to sand it and apply an undercoat or water-based primer before applying the polyurethane.
Related Read: Can You Apply Polyurethane Over Gel Stain?
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Here are questions frequently asked by DIYers like yourself about applying polyurethane over wood stain:
Can You Make Wood Stain Dry Faster For Polyurethane?
You can make wood stain dry faster for polyurethane application. To do this, you should apply thin coats of the wood stain so it evaporates and dries faster. You can also use a hairdryer or heater to dry the wood stain immediately after application. This will make the wood stain dry faster for the polyurethane.
However, you should know that it’s best to allow the wood stain to dry itself for polyurethane. This way, the wood stain dries naturally and will be stronger than a wood stain that is dried manually.
Should You Use Water-Based or Oil-Based Polyurethane Over Wood Stain?
You can use either water-based or oil-based polyurethane on a wood stain. You can also pick polyurethane that has the same base as the existing wood stain. This means using water-based polyurethane for water-based wood stains and oil-based polyurethane for oil-based wood stains.
How Long Does Polyurethane Dry On Wood Stain?
It takes between 24 hours and 72 hours for polyurethane to dry on a wood stain. Water-based polyurethane dries on a wood stain in 24 hours while oil-based wood stain takes 48 hours to dry on a wood stain. However, it’s best to leave the polyurethane for 3 days to fully cure before using it or placing items on the polyurethane-finished surface.
In summary, polyurethane can be used over a wood stain to protect and preserve the finish. But, the wood stain should be allowed to dry for at least 24 hours before applying polyurethane.
If you are working on an oil-based stain or gel stain, it’s best to wait about 48 hours before applying polyurethane. If you apply polyurethane over wood stain too soon, the polyurethane finish will turn sticky and smelly.